Discovering the Top Programming
Languages of Today

by Andres Monge, Accounts Director

February 19, 2024

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Discovering the Top Programming 
Languages of Today

The world of technology is constantly evolving, and staying abreast of the most in-demand programming languages is essential for businesses and tech enthusiasts alike. The GitHub Innovation Graph offers a dynamic perspective, showcasing the top 25 programming languages defining North America's current era of software development. This list reflects the diverse and ever-changing programming landscape, from widely used languages for web development to niche languages for specialized applications.


JavaScript is the top programming language globally due to its exclusive role in client-side and server-side web development, enabled by technologies like Node.js. Its indispensability in creating interactive web experiences and a vast ecosystem of libraries and frameworks simplifies development across the entire web stack. The language benefits from a robust community and abundant resources, ensuring easy accessibility for learners and support for developers. Continuous updates and the adaptability of JavaScript further secure its position by keeping it at the forefront of technological advancements in web development.


Python's status as one of the world's leading programming languages is attributed to its simplicity, versatility, and the vast array of applications it supports. Renowned for its readable syntax, Python makes programming accessible to beginners while offering powerful capabilities to experts. It's a staple in diverse fields such as web development, data analysis, artificial intelligence (AI), scientific computing, and automation. The extensive standard library provides tools for virtually any project alongside a rich ecosystem of frameworks and libraries like Django for web development and TensorFlow for machine learning. Moreover, the strong, supportive community and abundant resources facilitate learning and problem-solving. Python's continuous evolution with regular updates ensures it remains relevant and efficient for modern programming challenges.


Shell scripting, encompassing various Unix shell scripts like Bash, is a powerful tool for automating repetitive tasks, managing system operations, and enhancing productivity in Unix-like operating systems. It excels in file manipulation, program execution, and task automation, making it indispensable for system administrators and developers working in Linux/Unix environments. The simplicity of shell scripting lies in its ability to quickly script complex commands that can be executed with minimal effort, streamlining workflows and system management. Its integration with Unix/Linux systems allows for direct manipulation of system functions and processes, providing a lightweight, efficient means of automating tasks without the overhead of more complex programming languages. Additionally, the widespread use of Unix-like systems in servers and cloud infrastructure further cements shell scripting's role as a critical skill in IT and DevOps fields. With extensive documentation and a supportive community, shell scripting remains a fundamental tool for effective system management and automation.


Java's prominence as a leading programming language is rooted in its versatility, portability, and extensive use in enterprise environments. Designed with the principle of "write once, run anywhere," Java enables developers to create applications that run seamlessly across various platforms, thanks to the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). This feature has made it a preferred language for developing platform-independent applications, ranging from web and mobile applications to large-scale enterprise systems and Android app development. Java's object-oriented structure promotes clean, modular programming, facilitating the development and maintenance of complex applications. The language is supported by a robust standard library and a rich ecosystem of frameworks and tools like Spring and Hibernate, which streamline development tasks such as web services, networking, and database connectivity. Furthermore, Java's strong emphasis on security, robust memory management, and high performance, along with a vast community of developers and extensive documentation, ensures that it remains a top choice for developers worldwide, catering to a wide array of programming needs.


C++ stands out as a highly efficient and versatile programming language that underpins the development of complex systems, including operating systems, game engines, embedded systems, and high-performance applications. Its hallmark lies in the combination of low-level memory manipulation capabilities akin to C and high-level object-oriented features, which facilitate the creation of sophisticated systems with optimal performance. C++ is the language of choice for scenarios where direct hardware interaction, real-time processing, and resource-intensive tasks are critical. It is integral in game development, real-time simulation, and software requiring high-efficiency algorithms. The language's extensive standard library, templates, and the Standard Template Library (STL) offer developers powerful tools for writing efficient code without sacrificing performance. Despite its steep learning curve, C++ remains highly valued for its unparalleled control over system resources and performance optimization. The ongoing evolution of the language, with regular updates adding modern features, ensures C++ maintains its relevance and utility in tackling contemporary computing challenges.


Dockerfile, a cornerstone of Docker container technology, serves as a blueprint for building Docker images. It is a text document that contains all the commands a user could call on the command line to assemble an image. By automating the process of configuring a Docker container, Dockerfile makes it straightforward to create reproducible and portable container images. This enables developers to package applications with their dependencies and environment settings into compact, portable units. Dockerfile's significance lies in its ability to streamline the deployment process across different environments, ensuring consistency and efficiency. It supports complex applications' lifecycle by facilitating continuous integration and continuous deployment (CI/CD) pipelines, making it easier to build, test, and release software faster and more reliably. The Dockerfile syntax is designed to be easy to learn and use, allowing developers to define container environments precisely, from installing software packages to setting environment variables and running commands. This level of control and automation simplifies the complexities of software delivery, making Dockerfile an essential tool in modern DevOps practices.


Makefile is a fundamental tool used in software development for automating the build process. It specifies how to compile and link programs from their source code files by defining a set of tasks, known as targets, and the dependencies between them. Written for the 'make' utility, a Makefile streamlines the compilation process, allowing developers to efficiently manage and automate building projects, including large and complex ones. It excels when multiple files must be compiled, as it checks for changes in source files and only recompiles the modified files, significantly reducing development time. The utility of a Makefile extends beyond compilation; it can be used to automate testing, deployment, and other repetitive tasks in the software development lifecycle. Despite its steep learning curve, Makefile's ability to handle complex build processes with precision and its adaptability to various development environments make it an invaluable tool in the arsenal of developers, particularly in C and C++ projects. The continued use of Makefiles in open-source and commercial development projects underscores its effectiveness in enhancing productivity and ensuring consistency across different stages of software development.


PHP is a popular open-source scripting language tailored for web development, allowing for the creation of dynamic and interactive web pages through server-side scripting. It is beginner-friendly yet offers advanced features for experienced developers, ensuring broad compatibility with different databases, servers, and operating systems. PHP's extensive built-in functionalities simplify various web development tasks, and its support for numerous frameworks accelerates the development of scalable applications. Benefiting from a large and active community, PHP has a rich ecosystem of development tools and resources. Regular updates enhance its features, performance, and security, keeping it competitive in the evolving web development arena. PHP's continued importance is underscored by its role in powering major web platforms and content management systems, highlighting its adaptability and enduring relevance.


C is a foundational programming language known for its efficiency, simplicity, and versatility. It provides low-level access to memory and system processes, making it ideal for developing operating systems, embedded systems, and high-performance applications. C's influence is evident in its direct impact on the design of many subsequent languages, including C++, C#, and Java. The language's compact syntax and robust set of operators enable precise control over hardware, a feature highly valued in-system programming and resource-constrained applications. Despite its steep learning curve, C's portability and the speed of its compiled code make it a preferred choice for cross-platform development. The language has a robust standard library that offers essential utilities for program development, although developers often supplement these with custom libraries for specific tasks. Supported by a vast and experienced community, C remains a critical tool in software development, underpinning modern computing's infrastructure and continuing to be relevant for teaching fundamental computer science concepts.


Ruby is celebrated for its elegance and productivity, designed with a focus on simplicity and intuitive syntax that mimics natural language. This object-oriented programming language is particularly favored for web development, thanks to the popular Rails framework, which promotes rapid development practices. Ruby's "Convention over Configuration" philosophy and "Don't Repeat Yourself" encourage writing clean and maintainable code, making it highly efficient for building complex web applications with less code than other languages. The dynamic nature of Ruby, combined with powerful metaprogramming capabilities, allows for flexible and dynamic code structures that can adapt to changing requirements. Its comprehensive standard library and a vibrant ecosystem of gems (libraries) provide a broad array of functionalities, streamlining the development process. Ruby's community is renowned for its friendly and supportive culture, contributing to extensive resources, tutorials, and tools that facilitate learning and development. Despite competition from newer languages, Ruby maintains its relevance and popularity, especially among startups and web developers, for its simplicity, expressiveness, and robust development capabilities.


TypeScript enhances JavaScript by introducing static typing, enabling developers to write more reliable and maintainable code for complex applications. Its compatibility with JavaScript ensures easy integration into existing projects, while static typing aids in early error detection and prevention. TypeScript supports modern JavaScript features and compiles to plain JavaScript, facilitating backward compatibility with older browsers. The language boasts excellent tooling support, notably with editors like Visual Studio Code, which enhances productivity through features like autocompletion and refactoring. Widely adopted in large-scale projects and supported by significant frameworks like Angular, React, and Vue.js, TypeScript's active community and rich ecosystem of resources make it a preferred choice for web development, combining JavaScript's flexibility with the robustness of static typing. Learn more about TypeScript and JavaScript.

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C# (C Sharp) is a versatile, object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft, designed to balance power and productivity for developing a wide range of applications, including desktop, web, mobile, and gaming, particularly within the .NET framework. Its strong typing, sophisticated garbage collection, and extensive class library streamline the development process, reducing errors and enhancing efficiency. C# supports modern programming concepts such as asynchronous programming, LINQ (Language Integrated Query), and more, enabling developers to write clean, maintainable code. It's particularly favored in enterprise environments for its scalability, security features, and integration capabilities. The language's compatibility with Microsoft's Visual Studio provides developers with a powerful Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for debugging and development. Over the years, C# has evolved to support cross-platform development through the .NET Core platform, making it possible to build applications that run on Windows, Linux, and macOS. The vibrant C# community and comprehensive documentation further contribute to its popularity, making it a robust language for both beginners and experienced developers aiming to build high-quality applications across various platforms.

Batch files

Batch files, native to Windows operating systems, are simple text files with a sequence of commands executed by the Windows command-line interpreter, cmd.exe. Their .bat or .cmd file extension identifies them. Batch files are used for automating repetitive tasks and streamlining the process of executing multiple commands without manual input. This can include launching programs, managing files and directories, and performing system administration tasks. Despite their simplicity, batch files can be quite powerful, supporting control structures like loops and conditional statements, allowing for complex scripts tailored to specific needs. Their ease of creation and use makes them accessible for novice users and seasoned professionals looking to automate routine operations. While they may not offer the advanced functionalities of modern scripting languages, batch files remain a valuable tool in Windows environments for their straightforward syntax and direct integration with the Windows OS. Their continued use in system administration, software installation scripts, and quick automation tasks underlines their utility in efficiently managing Windows-based systems.


T-SQL, or Transact-SQL, is Microsoft's extension of SQL used in SQL Server and Sybase ASE, adding proprietary programming constructs to standard SQL for enhanced database management and application development. It introduces procedural programming elements, such as variables, conditional logic, and loops, alongside advanced error handling and built-in functions for comprehensive data manipulation. T-SQL is crucial for tasks like database administration, data analysis, and creating complex database applications, allowing for the efficient execution of grouped SQL operations to maintain data integrity. Its capabilities for transaction control, along with features like indexed views and common table expressions, optimize performance and improve code readability and maintenance. Essential for users of Microsoft SQL Server, T-SQL leverages the database's features to manage and process data effectively, making it a vital tool in database management and development.


Objective-C is a programming language for developing iOS and macOS applications, blending C's procedural elements with object-oriented features. Before Swift's advent, it was Apple's primary development language, known for its dynamic runtime and unique message-passing syntax that supports complex, maintainable applications. While Swift has become the preferred choice for new Apple projects due to its modern syntax and safety features, Objective-C remains significant for maintaining existing apps and libraries. Its compatibility with C and C++ and direct access to Apple's APIs and frameworks ensure its continued relevance in the Apple development ecosystem, especially for legacy projects and scenarios requiring interoperability with C-based languages.


Go, or Golang, is an open-source programming language created by Google, designed for simplicity, efficiency, and reliability in modern software development. Its ability to build high-performance, concurrent applications stands out, making it well-suited for cloud computing, microservices, and distributed systems. Go's support for concurrency is a hallmark, with goroutines for lightweight threads and channels for safe inter-thread communication, streamlining the development of parallel processes. Its comprehensive standard library, alongside tools for code formatting and documentation, minimizes external dependencies and enhances code readability and maintenance. Emphasizing straightforward, maintainable code, Go has gained popularity for its blend of compiled language performance with the convenience of garbage collection and static typing, effectively addressing the complexities of today's software projects.


CMake is a cross-platform open-source tool designed for managing the build process of software in a compiler-independent manner. It utilizes simple configuration files to generate native makefiles and workspaces that can be used across various platforms, such as Unix, Windows, and macOS, without modifying source code or build scripts. Its support for out-of-source builds, integration with popular IDEs, and ability to handle complex project structures have made CMake widely popular among developers. The tool's flexibility, combined with a large supporting community and ecosystem, allows for efficient management of build processes in large, multi-platform projects, contributing to its widespread adoption in the software development industry.


Kotlin is a modern, statically typed programming language that runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and can be used to develop Android, server-side applications, and more applications. Developed by JetBrains and officially supported by Google for Android development, Kotlin is designed to be fully interoperable with Java while fixing some of the issues Java developers have faced, such as verbosity and null pointer exceptions. Kotlin introduces a more concise syntax, type inference, null safety, extension functions, and coroutines for asynchronous programming, making it a more productive and safer alternative to Java. Its compatibility with existing Java libraries and frameworks and its modern features have led to its rapid adoption and popularity among developers for building reliable and high-performance applications across platforms. Kotlin's ease of use, robust tooling, and strong community support make it an attractive choice for both new and experienced mobile, web, and enterprise programmers.


PowerShell is a powerful cross-platform task automation solution that consists of a command-line shell, a scripting language, and a configuration management framework. Developed by Microsoft, it is built on the .NET framework and enables administrators to perform administrative tasks on local and remote Windows systems and Linux and macOS systems. PowerShell extends beyond traditional shell scripting capabilities by offering a fully object-oriented scripting language. It allows for complex operations, including automation of system management tasks and manipulation of Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) and Windows Registry, making it an essential tool for system administrators. With its ability to execute and script .NET functions, PowerShell provides a more sophisticated and versatile scripting environment compared to older command-line interfaces. Its comprehensive cmdlet library and the ability to access COM and WMI for system management further contribute to its popularity. PowerShell's integration with Microsoft's ecosystem, cross-platform support, and strong community backing have made it a widely adopted tool for a broad range of automation tasks, enhancing productivity and system manageability across diverse environments.


Swift is a powerful, intuitive programming language created by Apple to build iOS, Mac, Apple TV, and Apple Watch apps. It’s designed to give developers more freedom than ever. Swift is easy to use and open source, so anyone with an idea can create something incredible. Swift is a statically typed language that is very fast and efficient. It incorporates modern language features such as type inference, optional types to handle nil values, closures, generics, and error handling, making the code safer and more concise. Swift also supports interactive playgrounds in Xcode, allowing developers to test new algorithms or designs quickly without creating an entire app. Since its introduction in 2014, Swift has gained rapid adoption and popularity among developers due to its performance, safety features, and ease of learning. Its syntax encourages developers to write clean and readable code. Swift integrates seamlessly with existing Objective-C codebases, allowing an easy transition to Swift for current iOS and macOS developers. The language's design, combined with powerful debugging and development tools in Xcode, enhances developer productivity and app performance. Swift's robust type system, fast compilation, and runtime performance, along with its comprehensive standard library and support for modern programming patterns, make it an excellent choice for everything from "Hello, World!" to an entire operating system.


Perl is a dynamic programming language renowned for its text-processing prowess and flexibility, making it a staple for system administration, web development, and network programming since its inception in the late 1980s by Larry Wall. It incorporates features from various languages like C, sed, awk, and shell scripting, contributing to its principle of offering multiple ways to solve a problem. Perl's power is augmented by the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN), a vast repository of third-party modules that easily facilitates tasks ranging from simple data munging to complex report generation and automation. Although newer languages like Python and Ruby have emerged as competitors, Perl's unparalleled text manipulation capabilities and adaptability between procedural and object-oriented paradigms ensure its continued relevance and use in specific domains and legacy projects. Perl's community remains active, continuously enhancing its utility and securing its place in the evolving landscape of programming languages.


R is a specialized programming language and environment designed for statistical computing and graphical representation, developed by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman. It stands out for its extensive package ecosystem, CRAN, which supports various statistical and analytical techniques. Tailored for data analysis, R excels in data manipulation, statistical modeling, and visualization, making it a favorite among statisticians, data analysts, and researchers across diverse fields such as data science, bioinformatics, finance, and social sciences. Despite its steep learning curve, R's ability to handle complex data types and structures, its interoperability with databases and other programming languages, and its capacity for high-quality graphical outputs have cemented its status as a crucial tool in the data analysis and research communities. Its open-source nature and active contributing community further ensure R's ongoing relevance and development, keeping it at the forefront of statistical programming tools.


Assembly language is a low-level programming language closely tied to a computer's architecture, designed for precise control over hardware operations. It translates directly to machine code, offering unparalleled efficiency and performance for tasks requiring optimization, such as in embedded systems, operating systems, and high-performance computing. While its specificity to hardware makes it non-portable and its use more complex compared to high-level languages, assembly remains critical for performance-critical components and direct hardware interaction. The rise of advanced compilers and high-level languages has reduced the commonality of assembly language programming. Yet, it continues to be invaluable for optimizing software and understanding the fundamentals of computer operations.


Hack is a programming language developed by Facebook as an extension of PHP, designed to operate on the HipHop Virtual Machine (HHVM) to enhance type safety and developer productivity. It introduces features such as static typing, generics, and async/await for asynchronous programming, addressing scalability and maintainability issues inherent in large PHP codebases. Hack's gradual typing allows for incremental codebase improvements without complete rewrite requirements, offering a blend of dynamic and static typing benefits. Primarily used within Facebook and for projects targeting HHVM, Hack underscores an evolutionary step for dynamically typed languages, aiming to combine PHP's rapid development advantages with the reliability and performance benefits of type safety and asynchronous programming capabilities.

Vim Script: 

Vim script, or VimL, is Vim's built-in scripting language, the highly configurable text editor favored by programmers for its efficiency. Designed to automate tasks, customize the user interface, and extend Vim's capabilities, Vim script enables the creation of plugins, custom commands, and macros tailored to specific editing workflows. Although it features a unique syntax that can be challenging to master, its deep integration with Vim's core editing functions allows for sophisticated manipulation of text, buffers, and windows. The robust community around Vim has contributed to a rich ecosystem of Vim script plugins, maintaining Vim's relevance and adaptability. Vim script exemplifies domain-specific languages' utility and enduring appeal in enhancing productivity and customization in software tools.

Stateside Solutions

However, the challenge lies in identifying these top languages and sourcing skilled professionals proficient in them. This is where Stateside steps in. As a talent acquisition leader, we connect businesses with top-tier programming talent, both back-end and front-end developers. Whether your needs align with the most popular language or a more specialized one, Stateside's expansive network ensures access to professionals who are experts in the specific skills highlighted by the GitHub Innovation Graph, which not only illuminates the programming languages that are at the forefront today but also underscores the need for talented individuals who excel in these areas. With our expertise in finding the right talent, businesses are well-equipped to navigate and excel in the dynamic technology field.

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